| JULY 14-16, 2014

White Papers

Jitter Analysis on Oscilloscopes and BERTs

02/11/2014

Jitter can be analyzed on various test equipment: oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, phase noise analyzers, even vector network analyzers can play a key role, but the bit error rate tester (BERT) is the only equipment that can measure the single most important jitter quantity.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

Maintenance Testing with an Out-of-Band OTDR

02/11/2014

Since its inception, the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) has become the standard for measuring optical fiber distances and loss characteristics. During installation or certification, optical fibers are typically tested with an OTDR at the wavelengths that could or will be transmitted over them. This confirms that the fibers and associated components are capable of efficiently passing these wavelengths and all characteristics are within specification. Since the fiber is not in service or “dark”, there are no interfering transmissions present. On the other hand, maintenance and troubleshooting need to be performed after the fiber is placed into service. For traditional networks, this would ideally be done “after hours” in the maintenance window, when service can be shifted
to another spare fiber. For some networks, such as PON-based FTTx, it may not be possible to wait or shift the traffic, so in-service or “live” fiber testing may need to be performed. Due to this need, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has produced recommendations for out-of-band and maintenance testing of optical networks:

  • ITU-T Recommendation L.66: Optical fibre cable maintenance criteria for in-service fibre testing in access networks
  • ITU-T Recommendation L.41: Maintenance wavelength on fibres carrying signals

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

Wireless Ethernet Backhaul

02/11/2014

The wireless backhaul market is witnessing significant growth resulting from new protocol data applications. To support the increase in wireless backhaul growth, fiber optic backhauls are being installed throughout the network and up the tower to the antennas. In addition to fiber optic, Ethernet packet transport is becoming increasingly popular as the protocol data transport through the wireless backhaul due to its flexible capability and logical topology meeting the needs of current and future protocol data requirements. As a leader in optical transport measurement tools, Anritsu is committed to provide current and next Generation measurement tools to assist our customers with accurate and efficient network performance.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

Testing FTTx Networks featuring PONs - Selecting the Right OTDR

02/11/2014

Not all OTDRs are created equal! This is especially true when it comes to testing splitter-based Passive Optical Networks (PON). Many OTDRs make the claim that they can test PONs featuring splitters since they can see the end of the fiber, but the reality is they simply do not provide usable data to verify the characteristics of the network (splices, connectors, etc.). This application note will provide an overview of the important properties when selecting an OTDR to test PONs and highlight the quality of data needed to accurately measure the fiber route.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

Fiber Optic Testing Simplified - Introducing Fiber Visualizer MT9083 Series OTDRs

02/10/2014

The Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has been the workhorse of optical fiber installation and maintenance for over 30 years. During this time, dramatic changes have occurred, making OTDRs better suited for field use. What was once a bench top instrument that required two people to remove it from the transit case is now a small, batterypowered unit that can be held with one hand.

The operation and user interface have also evolved. Early OTDRs featured a CRT and produced a simple, low resolution trace that allowed a few basic measurements to be manually made by measuring between two cursors. This process was very time consuming and required technicians with very high skill levels. Over the last couple decades, OTDRs have come a long way with greatly improved user interfaces and introduction of automated analysis functions. User interfaces now feature different “modes” of operation, manual or automated parameter selection, and event tables summarizing the events of the fiber. However, this can still be overwhelming for a novice user, since much of the required information must still be located in the table, interpreted and correlated to
the OTDR graph.

To simplify testing for technicians of all skill levels, Anritsu created Fiber Visualizer. Fiber Visualizer is a new, one button fault locate function designed to simplify the entire testing process. Fiber Visualizer automatically selects the testing parameters to ensure the correct setup and provides a simple, graphical summary of the fiber under test within seconds. This eliminates all the guess work and potential “operator errors” than can jeopardize results. Thresholds can also be set to customize the results based on the customer, job or provided specifications. A comprehensive PDF report can then be customized and generated, completing the testing process to close out the job.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

FTTx/PON Resource Guide - Deploying and Maintaining Reliable and Low Cost Service Networks

02/10/2014

Testing fiber-to-the-X (FTTx) networks that include passive optical network (PON) architectures presents unique challenges to service providers. During installation, the network must meet certain standards parameters. Once the FTTx network is deployed, each subscriber connection requires additional tests to ensure service quality. Maintaining the operation of the PON network and troubleshooting potential problems also requires specialized testing procedures and equipment. Anritsu offers a complete line of FTTx and PON test equipment to ensure your networks will perform at their highest levels. The MT9083 Series OTDRs are high performance, all-in-one testing tools to ensure the quality of your optical fibers including PONs featuring up to a 1x128 split. The MT9090A with MU909011A Fault Locator module is the first tester designed specifically for short fiber such as drop cables.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

Sponsored by

Trends in Fiber Optic Connector Cleaning

01/30/2014

Fiber optics infrastructures have become quite common in a number of markets and applications. In conjunction with this fiber infrastructure are a variety of fiber interconnect solutions. Clean, reliable optical connectors are paramount in providing a reliable, high performance fiber infrastructure. This paper addresses the importance of cleaning and maintaining these optical connectors for optimal performance & reliability. The paper also addresses new approaches to rugged fiber optic connectors to simplify the field-cleaning and inspection process.

Whitepaper brought to you by Fischer Connectors Inc.

Sponsored by

Testing 100 G Transport Networks and Services

10/07/2013


The growing need for bandwidth capacity has fueled the development of the 100 G-based network.  This refers to a network equipped with core interfaces capable of carrying signals at bit rates just above 100 G.

 

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

Sponsored by

Advanced Error Analysis Offers New Troubleshooting Methods for High-Speed Data Communications

10/07/2013


Over the past decade, 10 G has become the de facto standard for both long and short-reach high-speed (premium) data communications links. Significant resources have gone into optimizing integrated circuits (ICs) with 10 G input/output (I/O) since the late 1990s to establish a healthy ecosystem for deploying 10 G links cost-effectively. This scales well for short inter-chip interfaces through to long reach (LR 10 km) optical modules and beyond. The 10 G technology displaced the expensive (first) 40 G technology in 40 GE because of its much improved cost scaling. However, it required establishing a new defacto rate to meet the needs of newer standards, such as 100 GE.

 

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

Sponsored by

Small Cells and the Evolution of Backhaul Assurance

10/07/2013


Mobile-network bandwidth demands continue to increase with no end in sight, driven by the proliferation of newer mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. With powerful processors and operating systems, mobile applications require considerable network resources. In recent years, the Google Android™ operating system has further accelerated new product introductions from a variety of device manufacturers, resulting in a quadrupling of processor speeds. Averaging hundreds of thousands of new activations per day, Android and other powerful mobile platforms such as the Apple iOS and Windows have fostered an environment enabling the rapid introduction of new, interactive, video-based applications. Emerging machine-to-machine requirements, including sensor networks and connected car platforms, will add further traffic load to today’s mobile networks.

 

 

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

Sponsored by

Featured Buyers Guide Companies