White Papers

Important Factors for Choosing an OTDR

05/07/2014

This white paper provides key information about OTDRs and guidance to newcomers in the telecommunication fiber optic market to select an OTDR appropriate to their testing needs.

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

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Cloud-RAN Deployment with CPRI Fronthaul Technology

05/07/2014

The increasing use of wireless internet services is fueling the demand for capacity in cellular networks. A number of new technologies are being deployed to raise capacity while keeping the total cost of ownership in alignment with revenue growth. This paper focuses on fiber-based fronthaul networks. It begins with a description of various alternative technologies, their use cases and benefits, and continues with an explanation of CPRI fundamentals. It closes with an overview of test applications for turn-up and troubleshooting of CPRI-based fronthaul networks.

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

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Adoption of Cloud Computing Hinges on Application Performance

05/07/2014

Smart network application platforms provide a cloud-based approach to embed data-capture technology throughout the network, delivering in-line intelligence to any monitoring, management, or business application. If an operator can decouple data collection and filtering from management, aggregation, and analysis, and then distribute throughout a cloud-based network, the operator can dramatically reduce the cost, footprint, and complexity of capturing rich intelligence about the network, the content, and customers’ experience. This provides unprecedented access to intelligence across the network and especially to the network edge where 80 percent of customer issues occur, making networks more efficient and cost effective. Most importantly, cloud-based networks preserve the value of existing infrastructure and personnel while simultaneously enabling these resources to perform better and more efficiently.

Whitepaper brought to you by JDSU

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Jitter Analysis on Oscilloscopes and BERTs

02/11/2014

Jitter can be analyzed on various test equipment: oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, phase noise analyzers, even vector network analyzers can play a key role, but the bit error rate tester (BERT) is the only equipment that can measure the single most important jitter quantity.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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Maintenance Testing with an Out-of-Band OTDR

02/11/2014

Since its inception, the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) has become the standard for measuring optical fiber distances and loss characteristics. During installation or certification, optical fibers are typically tested with an OTDR at the wavelengths that could or will be transmitted over them. This confirms that the fibers and associated components are capable of efficiently passing these wavelengths and all characteristics are within specification. Since the fiber is not in service or “dark”, there are no interfering transmissions present. On the other hand, maintenance and troubleshooting need to be performed after the fiber is placed into service. For traditional networks, this would ideally be done “after hours” in the maintenance window, when service can be shifted
to another spare fiber. For some networks, such as PON-based FTTx, it may not be possible to wait or shift the traffic, so in-service or “live” fiber testing may need to be performed. Due to this need, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has produced recommendations for out-of-band and maintenance testing of optical networks:

  • ITU-T Recommendation L.66: Optical fibre cable maintenance criteria for in-service fibre testing in access networks
  • ITU-T Recommendation L.41: Maintenance wavelength on fibres carrying signals

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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Wireless Ethernet Backhaul

02/11/2014

The wireless backhaul market is witnessing significant growth resulting from new protocol data applications. To support the increase in wireless backhaul growth, fiber optic backhauls are being installed throughout the network and up the tower to the antennas. In addition to fiber optic, Ethernet packet transport is becoming increasingly popular as the protocol data transport through the wireless backhaul due to its flexible capability and logical topology meeting the needs of current and future protocol data requirements. As a leader in optical transport measurement tools, Anritsu is committed to provide current and next Generation measurement tools to assist our customers with accurate and efficient network performance.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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Testing FTTx Networks featuring PONs - Selecting the Right OTDR

02/11/2014

Not all OTDRs are created equal! This is especially true when it comes to testing splitter-based Passive Optical Networks (PON). Many OTDRs make the claim that they can test PONs featuring splitters since they can see the end of the fiber, but the reality is they simply do not provide usable data to verify the characteristics of the network (splices, connectors, etc.). This application note will provide an overview of the important properties when selecting an OTDR to test PONs and highlight the quality of data needed to accurately measure the fiber route.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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Fiber Optic Testing Simplified - Introducing Fiber Visualizer MT9083 Series OTDRs

02/10/2014

The Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has been the workhorse of optical fiber installation and maintenance for over 30 years. During this time, dramatic changes have occurred, making OTDRs better suited for field use. What was once a bench top instrument that required two people to remove it from the transit case is now a small, batterypowered unit that can be held with one hand.

The operation and user interface have also evolved. Early OTDRs featured a CRT and produced a simple, low resolution trace that allowed a few basic measurements to be manually made by measuring between two cursors. This process was very time consuming and required technicians with very high skill levels. Over the last couple decades, OTDRs have come a long way with greatly improved user interfaces and introduction of automated analysis functions. User interfaces now feature different “modes” of operation, manual or automated parameter selection, and event tables summarizing the events of the fiber. However, this can still be overwhelming for a novice user, since much of the required information must still be located in the table, interpreted and correlated to
the OTDR graph.

To simplify testing for technicians of all skill levels, Anritsu created Fiber Visualizer. Fiber Visualizer is a new, one button fault locate function designed to simplify the entire testing process. Fiber Visualizer automatically selects the testing parameters to ensure the correct setup and provides a simple, graphical summary of the fiber under test within seconds. This eliminates all the guess work and potential “operator errors” than can jeopardize results. Thresholds can also be set to customize the results based on the customer, job or provided specifications. A comprehensive PDF report can then be customized and generated, completing the testing process to close out the job.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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FTTx/PON Resource Guide - Deploying and Maintaining Reliable and Low Cost Service Networks

02/10/2014

Testing fiber-to-the-X (FTTx) networks that include passive optical network (PON) architectures presents unique challenges to service providers. During installation, the network must meet certain standards parameters. Once the FTTx network is deployed, each subscriber connection requires additional tests to ensure service quality. Maintaining the operation of the PON network and troubleshooting potential problems also requires specialized testing procedures and equipment. Anritsu offers a complete line of FTTx and PON test equipment to ensure your networks will perform at their highest levels. The MT9083 Series OTDRs are high performance, all-in-one testing tools to ensure the quality of your optical fibers including PONs featuring up to a 1x128 split. The MT9090A with MU909011A Fault Locator module is the first tester designed specifically for short fiber such as drop cables.

Whitepaper brought to you by Anritsu.

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Trends in Fiber Optic Connector Cleaning

01/30/2014

Fiber optics infrastructures have become quite common in a number of markets and applications. In conjunction with this fiber infrastructure are a variety of fiber interconnect solutions. Clean, reliable optical connectors are paramount in providing a reliable, high performance fiber infrastructure. This paper addresses the importance of cleaning and maintaining these optical connectors for optimal performance & reliability. The paper also addresses new approaches to rugged fiber optic connectors to simplify the field-cleaning and inspection process.

Whitepaper brought to you by Fischer Connectors Inc.

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