ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATINGS
Arrayed waveguide gratings come in Gaussian passband and flattened passband versions. The flattened version has 1- and 3-dB passbands. Each version is available with channel counts of 16, 24, 32, or 40, with channel spacing at 50, 100, or 200 GHz. They provide crosstalk >22 dB, polarization insensitivity, and high channel-to-channel uniformity. The Gaussian version has insertion loss of <6 dB, the flattened, <8 dB. The silicon-on-silicon waveguides are based on 6-in. wafers and a chemical-vapor deposition process.
Axon Photonics, Fremont, CA
A programmable optical add/drop multiplexer combines thin-film DWDM and optomechanical switch technologies. It can dynamically add or drop any operating channels remotely using built-in software. The devices are available in 4 x 4, 8 x 8, 16 x 16, and 20 x 20 versions, with 50-, 100-, and 200-GHz spacing for both the C- and L-bands. The device has an all-optical path configuration for transmission of SONET/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet, and other signals without electrical conversion. It comes in a standard 19-in. rack mount.
Global Opticom, Sunnyvale, CA
CODE V release 8.60 optical-design software contains tools for analyzing and improving the coupling efficiency and insertion loss of optical fiber systems. The new version includes built-in functions for modeling diffraction-based coupling phenomena, including polarization effects, beam apodization, beam-truncation effects, Fresnel reflections, and diffraction efficiency of volume holographic optical elements. Diffraction-energy losses can be tracked on a surface-by-surface basis, and the handling of Gaussian beams in symmetric and nonsymmetric systems has been improved. The software runs on Windows or he Sun SPARCstation platform.
Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, CA
The FOMUX 1500 WDM multiplexer system allows operations via one fiber pair or a single fiber. It is designed for storage-area networks, broadcast systems, and company networks. The modular system can be used with up to eight channel cards and processes not only optical input signals but also a variety of electrical interfaces. Optical input can be 850 and 1300 nm for multimode and 1300 and 1550 nm for single-mode. Transmission distance is up to 60 km, and data rate is from 2 to 155 Mbit/s.
Pandatel AG, Hamburg, Germany
Optical-receiver modules operate at up to 10 Gbit/s within the 1300- to 1600-nm range. The modules consist of a PIN photodetector and a transimpedance amplifier in a compact metal package with a single-mode fiber pigtail. Typical sensitivity is -20 dBm and bandwidth is 8 GHz. One version has a single-ended RF connection and the other has differential coplanar outputs.
Ericsson Microelectronics AB, Kista, Sweden
A group of products for coarse WDM in metro systems includes DFB/MQW uncooled coaxial lasers with a 13-nm bandwidth, pigtailed OC-48 transmitter/ receivers with six channels from 1510 to 1610 nm, mux/demux modules in four or eight channels, and optical add/drop multiplexers in various configurations. They can provide rates up to 2.5 Gbit/s over 50 km.
ExceLight, Durham, NC
A line of coarse WDM modules for metro networks includes transceivers in eight wavelengths between 1470 and 1610 nm, optical add/drop multiplexers, and muxers/demuxes in either four or eight channels. Data rates range from 100 Mbit/s to OC-48 SONET. The OADM and mux/demux come either with fiber pigtails or in the company's chassis.
Finisar Corp., Sunnyvale, CA
The IQ-12007A multiwavelength comb controller allows automated control of multiple laser sources for EDFA testing and measurement applications. It supports up to 160 channels of distributed feedback laser sources. The modular, open-architecture system is designed for optical component manufacturers.
EXFO, Quebec City, Que., Canada
The PhotonIC multiport pump-source array is built on the company's planar IC platform. It holds eight 980-nm lasers to provide pump power to eight separate amplifiers. The board-mountable module can be used for single-channel amplets, loss compensation for optical crossconnects, and power-level control and amplification in banded DWDM networks.
Gemfire, Palo Alto, CA
LINEAR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER
A single-chip, semiconductor-based linear optical amplifier suppresses crosstalk by more than 25 dB and operates at data rates passing 10 Gbit/s. It provides flat gain over the 1530- to 1565-nm range without gain-flattening filters, and it can be designed to operate in other bands in the fiber window. The integratable device is housed in an industry-standard butterfly package.
Genoa Corp., Fremont, CA
Precision gain flatteners for EDFAs and Raman amplifiers can flatten gain to ±0.2 dB, with typical insertion loss of 0.3 dB and back reflection <-60 dB. No isolator is required. They have a wavelength range to 100 nm, polarization sensitivity <0.08 dB, and dispersion <0.03 ps/nm.
Sabeus Photonics, Long Beach, CA
A fiber-Bragg-grating circulated fixed add/drop module is designed to drop and add four narrowband WDM channels. The modules cover channel spacings of 50 to 200 GHz. The temperature-compensated FBGs have temperature sensitivity lower than 1 pm/°C. Modules with a customized number of channels are available.
Gould Fiber Optics, Millersville, MD
A 50-GHz DWDM filter is made by IAD coating technology. The filters operate between 1530 and 1565 nm with bandwidths greater than 0.2 nm. The multicavity filter consists of a substrate with more than 100 alternating layers of different optical materials.
Leybold Optics, Hanau, Germany
An arrayed-waveguide-grating DWDM multiplexer/demultiplexer offers 40 channels in the S-band from about 1490 to 1530 nm.
Lightwave Microsystems, San Jose, CA
A single-chip laser controller contains circuits that provide all the analog functions to run closed-loop control of laser temperature, optical power, and pre-bias current. A microprocessor sets the references for these loops through a serial port. The chip is based on bipolar-CMOS-DMOS technology, integrating control functions and high-current drive circuits on the same piece of silicon.
NTT Electronics Corp., Tokyo, Japan
The all-fiber polarization-pump combiner for increasing optical amplifier power has insertion loss as low as 0.25 dB and is completely athermal. It has been tested for 500 h at 1.9 W. It can be custom-designed for use with any Raman or EDFA wavelength.
ITF Optical Technologies, Montreal, Que., Canada
Boules of single-crystal stoichiometric LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 measure 3 in. in diameter. The crystals maintain the nearly ideal 50:50 ratio of lithium to niobium, reducing the defect density by two orders of magnitude, which leads to larger nonlinear and electro-optic coefficients and increased resistance to optical damage. The crystals are useful for telecommunications, as well as optical storage, frequency doubling, and parametric conversion.
Oxide Corp., Yamanashi, Japan
The UltraWave family of optical fibers is dispersion-compensation fiber with an inverse dispersion slope for submarine transmission. The fiber will allow for an increase in the number of channels per fiber over distances spanning the Pacific Ocean.
Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ
A line of replicated transmission gratings was designed for optimum performance in the visible spectrum. The gratings allow simple optical design for fixed-grating applications, such as spectrographs, and are forgiving of grating alignment errors.
Optometrics USA, Ayer, MA
Optical add/drop modules (OADMs) are built using a 50-GHz thin-film filter (TFF). The TFF diverts one narrow range of wavelength within the OADM for selective wavelength routing. A channel can be added or dropped in a stream of channels that differ by only 0.4 nm. The OADMs have a wide but sharp passband with high isolation of neighboring channels.
Oplink Communications, San Jose, CA
Miniature polarization-maintaining fiber-pigtailed circulators transmit light from an input fiber to a second fiber and reflect returning light on the second fiber to a third fiber. They are available for the C-, S-, and L-bands in either a T-shape or inline design. They have polarization extinction ratios as high as 30 dB, insertion losses as low as 0.6 dB, and -60-dB return losses.
Oz Optics Ltd., Carp, Ont., Canada
The CDB50-ST is capable of bonding flip chips and dies facing up in the same pass, with submicron placement accuracies depending on the application. It can pick up dies as small as 200 µm from gel or waffle packs. For eutectic bonding it can be equipped with an environmentally controlled reflow oven. The machine can be delivered as a fully automatic magazine-to-magazine system or with manual substrate or boat loading.
RD Automation, Piscataway, NJ
The CHROMOS11 chromatic-dispersion field test set allows users to measure total end-to-end dispersion of both repeaterless and line-amplified systems. The portable device is compatible with amplified fiber links and measurement over the C- and L-bands and works for 10- and 40-Gbit/s WDM systems.
PerkinElmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA
The MICS line of multiplexers/demultiplexers from Photonetics has 16 to 40 channels with 50- or 100-GHz spacing. The passive device has an insertion loss of 3 dB and -40-dB interchannel crosstalk. It has channel uniformity of 1 dB and no temperature dependence.
GN Nettest, Brandby, Denmark
A series of pump-combining devices for OEMs are based on thin-film technology. The passive devices for EDFAs and Raman amplifiers combine the power output of pump sources or combine the pump power with signals being amplified. Bandsplitters can combine or split C- and L-band signals.
New Focus, San Jose, CA
Advanced FreeLight nonzero-dispersion optical fiber for long-distance, high-bit-rate applications has polarization-mode dispersion specification tightened by 50%. The low PMD value can aid 40 Gbit/s transmission.
Pirelli Cables and Systems North America, Columbia, SC
FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS
A line of fiber Bragg gratings comes in 25-, 50-, and 100-GHz sizes. The 25-GHz gratings with bandwidth of 0.1 nm are optimized for up to 10-Gbit/s transmission over 160 C-band channels. All filters have adjacent channel isolation of 25 dB, nonadjacent isolation of 35 dB, center-wavelength accuracy of ±1 GHz, and reflectivity of 90 to >99%.
Southampton Photonics, Southampton, England
Erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers for metro networks contain a pump laser, pump multiplexer, waveguide amplifier, pump kill filter, and tap coupler into a 130 x 27 x 13-mm package. Systems manufacturers must add their own electronics. The planar waveguide is fabricated on a glass chip and provides low noise figure, low power consumption, and low polarization dependence comparable to an EDFA.
Teem Photonics, Meylan, France
The AMP-FL8001-LB is a high-power amplifier for L-band testing. It has gain >30 dB, noise <5 dBm, and can cover wavelengths from 1560 to 1600 nm. The device is based on an erbium-doped fluoride-fiber gain module. It is designed for component testing, optical-power calibration, and testing of nonlinear optical effects.
Thorlabs, Newton, NJ
The VSC8185 16:1 multiplexer and VSC8184 1:16 demultiplexer operate from 11.5 to 12.5 Gbit/s for high-gain forward error correction operations. They operate over a continuous tuning range using a single +3.3-V power supply and dissipate <3.5 W for the total chipset. The multiplexer has a high-speed clock output. The demux has 50-mV input sensitivity.
Vitesse, Camarillo, CA
A series of thin-film filter-based optical add/drop multiplexers achieves 50-GHz bandwidths without temperature compensation. The all-passive devices have residual isolation at dropped channels of better than -35 dB. The modules are available in standard ITU wavelengths with 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-channel add/drop configurations and are designed for long-haul and metropolitan core network applications.
Alliance Fiber Optic Products, Sunnyvale, CA
ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATING
The WaveArray arrayed waveguide grating has channel counts of 16, 32, or 40 with channel spacings of 100 GHz. It is available in both a Gaussian and flat-top profile. It is made with silicon-on-silicon technology for high-volume production. It measures 88 x 52 x 8.5 mm and can be combined with the company's interleaver for dense channel spacing.
WaveSplitter Technologies, Fremont, CA
The WD200 optical-spectrum monitor checks the performance of optical channels and provides feedback to the control system. It supports WDM systems with 50- or 100-GHz channel spacing in the C- and L-bands. It is based on a 640-element photodiode array and measures channel wavelength, power, OSNR, and tilt data in 100 ms.
Yokogawa, Newnan, GA
The Photonic Foundation Library is measurement and analysis software added to the company's 8164A Lightwave Measurement System. It integrates into the company's VEE programming environment, as well as LabVIEW and Lab Windows. It has a collection of the most widely used measurement and analysis functions for optical components, and built-in error handling and parameter checking.
Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA
The PriorSpec II from Prior Scientific is a portable microscope for visual inspection of fiberoptic connectors. It provides total magnification of 200x or 400x and has a low-power LED illumination system for equal illumination at low heat. It has a zooming eyepiece, a precision focus mechanism, a laser barrier filter, and a low-battery warning light. A wide range of connector adapters is available.
AMS Technologies, Fiberoptic Division, Munich, Germany
A parallel fiberoptic transmitter/receiver provides four channels at 2.5 Gbit/s in an LC-connector for a total transmission and reception of 10 Gbit/s. The aggregate-throughput product is compatible with the Infiniband Standard specification.
E20 Communications, Calabasas, CA
The NEC NX8564LE-CC is a multiple-quantum-well, distributed-feedback laser diode, with an integrated electroabsorption modulator. The 1550-nm diode is designed for 2.5-Gbit/s DWDM applications and has a reach of more than 360 km. It has a typical dispersion penalty of 1.5 dB, 2-dB maximum, in single-mode fiber, with minimum isolation of 23 dB, and peak emission wavelengths of 1530 to 1563 or 1570 to 1612 nm.
California Eastern Laboratories, Santa Clara, CA